Thursday, November 27, 2008

Celebrating Thanksgiving in America

David Barton - 11/2008

The tradition introduced by European Americans of Thanksgiving as a time to focus on God and His blessings dates back well over four centuries in America. For example, such thanksgivings occurred in 1541 at Palo Duro Canyon, Texas with Coronado and 1,500 of his men; 1 in 1564 at St. Augustine, Florida with French Huguenot (Protestant) colonists; 2 in 1598 at El Paso, Texas with Juan de OƱate and his expedition; 3 in 1607 at Cape Henry, Virginia with the landing of the Jamestown settlers; 4 in 1619 at Berkeley Plantation, Virginia; 5 (and many other such celebrations). But it is primarily from the Pilgrim’s Thanksgiving celebration of 1621 that we derive the current tradition of Thanksgiving Day.

The Pilgrims set sail for America on September 6, 1620, and for two months braved the harsh elements of a storm-tossed sea. Upon disembarking at Plymouth Rock, they held a prayer service and then hastily began building shelters; however, unprepared for such a harsh New England winter, nearly half of them died before spring. 6 Emerging from that grueling winter, the Pilgrims were surprised when an Indian named Samoset approached them and greeted them in their own language, explaining to them that he had learned English from fishermen and traders. A week later, Samoset returned with a friend named Squanto, who lived with the Pilgrims and accepted their Christian faith. Squanto taught the Pilgrims much about how to live in the New World, and he and Samoset helped forge a long-lasting peace treaty between the Pilgrims and the Wampanoag Indians. Pilgrim Governor William Bradford described Squanto as “a special instrument sent of God for [our] good . . . and never left [us] till he died.” 7

That summer, the Pilgrims, still persevering in prayer and assisted by helpful Indians, 8 reaped a bountiful harvest. 9 As Pilgrim Edward Winslow (later to become the Governor) affirmed, “God be praised, we had a good increase of corn”; “by the goodness of God, we are far from want.” 10 The grateful Pilgrims therefore declared a three-day feast in December 1621 to thank God and to celebrate with their Indian friends 11 – America’s first Thanksgiving Festival. Ninety Wampanoag Indians joined the fifty Pilgrims for three days of feasting (which included shellfish, lobsters, turkey, corn bread, berries, deer, and other foods), of play (the young Pilgrim and Wampanoag men engaged in races, wrestling matches, and athletic events), and of prayer. This celebration and its accompanying activities were the origin of the holiday that Americans now celebrate each November.

However, while the Pilgrims enjoyed times of prosperity for which they thanked God, they also suffered extreme hardships. In fact, in 1623 they experienced an extended and prolonged drought. Knowing that without a change in the weather there would be no harvest and the winter would be filled with death and starvation, Governor Bradford called the Pilgrims to a time of prayer and fasting to seek God’s direct intervention. Significantly, shortly after that time of prayer – and to the great amazement of the Indian who witnessed the scene – clouds appeared in the sky and a gentle and steady rain began to fall. As Governor Bradford explained:

It came without either wind or thunder or any violence, and by degrees in abundance, as that ye earth was thoroughly wet and soaked therewith, which did so apparently revive and quicken ye decayed corn and other fruits as was wonderful to see, and made ye Indians astonished to behold; and afterwards the Lord sent them such seasonable showers, with interchange of fair warm weather as, through His blessing, caused a fruitful and liberal harvest, to their no small comfort and rejoicing. 12

The drought had been broken; the fall therefore produced an abundant harvest; there was cause for another thanksgiving. The Pilgrim practice of designating an official time of Thanksgiving spread into neighboring colonies and became an annual tradition. 13 And just as those neighboring colonies followed the Pilgrims’ example of calling for days of thanksgiving, so, too, did they adopt their practice of calling for a time of prayer and fasting. The New England Colonies therefore developed a practice of calling for a day of prayer and fasting in the spring, and a day of prayer and thanksgiving in the fall.

The Thanksgiving celebrations so common throughout New England did not begin to spread southward until the American Revolution, when Congress issued eight separate national Thanksgiving Proclamations. (Congress also issued seven separate proclamations for times of fasting and prayer, for a total of 15 official prayer proclamations during the American Revolution. 14)

America’s first national Thanksgiving occurred in 1789 with the commencement of the federal government. According to the Congressional Record for September 25 of that year, the first act after the Framers completed the framing of the Bill of Rights was that:

Mr. [Elias] Boudinot said he could not think of letting the session pass without offering an opportunity to all the citizens of the United States of joining with one voice in returning to Almighty God their sincere thanks for the many blessings He had poured down upon them. With this view, therefore, he would move the following resolution:

Resolved, That a joint committee of both Houses be directed to wait upon the President of the United States to request that he would recommend to the people of the United States a Day of Public Thanksgiving and Prayer. . . .

Mr. Roger Sherman justified the practice of thanksgiving on any single event not only as a laudable one in itself but also as warranted by a number of precedents in Holy Writ. . . . This example he thought worthy of a Christian imitation on the present occasion. 15

That congressional resolution was delivered to President George Washington, who heartily concurred with the request and issued the first federal Thanksgiving proclamation, declaring in part:

Whereas it is the duty of all nations to acknowledge the providence of Almighty God, to obey His will, to be grateful for His benefits, and humbly to implore His protection and favor. . . . Now, therefore, I do appoint Thursday, the 26th day of November 1789 . . . that we may all unite to render unto Him our sincere and humble thanks for His kind care and protection. 16

That same year, the Protestant Episcopal Church (of which President Washington was a member) announced that the first Thursday in November would become its regular day for giving thanks, “unless another day be appointed by the civil authorities.” 17 Following President Washington’s initial proclamation, national Thanksgiving Proclamations occurred only sporadically (another by President Washington in 1795, one by John Adams in 1799, one by James Madison in 1814 and again in 1815, etc.); 18 most official Thanksgiving observances occurred at the state level. In fact, by 1815, the various state governments had issued at least 1,400 official prayer proclamations, almost half for times of thanksgiving and prayer and the other half for times of fasting and prayer. 19

Much of the credit for the adoption of Thanksgiving as an annual national holiday may be attributed to Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale, the editor of Godey’s Lady’s Book, a popular lady’s books containing poetry, art work, and articles by America’s leading authors. For nearly three decades, she promoted the idea of a national Thanksgiving Day, 20 contacting president after president until Abraham Lincoln responded in 1863 by setting aside the last Thursday of that November. The Thanksgiving proclamation issued by Lincoln was remarkable not only for its strong religious content but also for its timing, for it was delivered in the midst of the darkest days of the Civil War, with the Union having lost battle after battle throughout the first three years of that conflict. Yet, despite those dark circumstances, Lincoln nevertheless called Americans to prayer with an air of positive optimism and genuine thankfulness, noting that:

The year that is drawing toward its close has been filled with the blessings of fruitful fields and healthful skies. To these bounties, which are so constantly enjoyed that we are prone to forget the Source from which they come, others have been added which are of so extraordinary a nature that they can not fail to penetrate and soften even the heart which is habitually insensible to the ever-watchful providence of Almighty God. . . . No human counsel hath devised nor hath any mortal hand worked out these great things. They are the gracious gifts of the Most High God, Who, while dealing with us in anger for our sins, hath nevertheless remembered mercy. 21

That remarkable Thanksgiving Proclamation came at a pivotal point in Lincoln’s spiritual life. Three months earlier, the Battle of Gettysburg had occurred, resulting in the loss of some 60,000 American lives. It had been while Lincoln was walking among the thousands of graves there at Gettysburg that he first committed his life to Christ. As he later explained to a clergyman:

When I left Springfield [Illinois, to assume the Presidency], I asked the people to pray for me. I was not a Christian. When I buried my son, the severest trial of my life, I was not a Christian. But when I went to Gettysburg and saw the graves of thousands of our soldiers, I then and there consecrated myself to Christ. 22

The dramatic spiritual impact resulting from that experience was not only visible in Lincoln’s Thanksgiving Day proclamation (and also his 1864 call for a day of prayer and fasting) but especially in his 1865 Second Inaugural Address.

Over the seventy-five years following Lincoln’s Thanksgiving Proclamation, presidents faithfully followed Lincoln’s precedent, annually declaring a national Thanksgiving Day (but the date of the celebrations varied widely from proclamation to proclamation). In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt began celebrating Thanksgiving on the fourth Thursday of each November, and in 1941, Congress permanently established that day as the national Thanksgiving holiday. 23

As you celebrate Thanksgiving this year, remember to retain the original gratefulness to God that has always been the spirit of this – the oldest of all American holidays. (Below are representative examples of the scores of Thanksgiving proclamations penned by various Founding Fathers.)

[Congress] recommended [a day of] . . . thanksgiving and praise [so] that “the good people may express the grateful feelings of their hearts and join . . . their supplication that it may please God, through the merits of Jesus Christ, to forgive [our sins] and . . . to enlarge [His] kingdom which consisteth in righteousness, peace and joy in the Holy Ghost.” 24 Continental Congress, 1777 – written by SIGNERS OF THE DECLARATION SAMUEL ADAMS AND RICHARD HENRY LEE

[I] appoint . . . a day of public Thanksgiving to Almighty God . . . to [ask] Him that He would . . . pour out His Holy Spirit on all ministers of the Gospel; that He would . . . spread the light of Christian knowledge through the remotest corners of the earth; . . . and that He would establish these United States upon the basis of religion and virtue. 25 GOVERNOR THOMAS JEFFERSON, 1779

[I] appoint . . . a day of public thanksgiving and praise . . . to render to God the tribute of praise for His unmerited goodness towards us . . . [by giving to] us . . . the Holy Scriptures which are able to enlighten and make us wise to eternal salvation. And [to] present our supplications...that He would forgive our manifold sins and . . . cause the benign religion of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ to be known, understood, and practiced among all the inhabitants of the earth. 26 GOVERNOR JOHN HANCOCK, 1790


Endnotes

1. Library of Congress, “Thanksgiving Timeline, 1541-2001” (at: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/thanksgiving/timeline/1541.html).

2. Library of Congress, “Thanksgiving Timeline, 1541-2001” (at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/learn/features/thanksgiving/timeline/1564.html).

3. Texas Almanac, “The First Thanksgiving?” (at http://www.texasalmanac.com/history/highlights/thanksgiving).

4. Benson Lossing, Our Country. A Household History of the United States (New York: James A. Bailey, 1895), Vol. 1, pp. 181-182; see also National Park Service, “Robert Hunt: Jamestown’s First Chaplain” (at http://www.nps.gov/archive/colo/Jthanout/RHunt.html).

5. “Berkeley Plantation,” Berkeley Plantation.Com, (at: http://www.berkleyplantation.com/history_discovered.html). (accessed November 17, 2008).

6. William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1856), pp. 74, 78, 80, 91.

7. William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1856), p. 95.

8. William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1856), p. 100.

9. William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1856), p. 105.

10. William S. Russell, Guide to Plymouth and Recollections of the Pilgrims (Boston: George Coolidge, 1846), p. 95, quoting from a letter of Pilgrim Edward Winslow to George Morton of London, written on December 21, 1621.

11. Ashbel Steele, Chief of the Pilgrims: Or the Life and Time of William Brewster (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co, 1857), pp. 269-270.

12. William Bradford, History of Plymouth Plantation (Boston: Little, Brown & Co, 1856), p. 142.

13. DeLoss Love, Jr, The Fast and Thanksgiving Days of New England (Boston: Houghton,, Mifflin & Co, 1895), pp. 87-90.

14. See the Journals of the Continental Congress (1905) for June 12, 1775; March 16, 1776; December 11, 1776; November 1, 1777; March 7, 1778; November 17, 1778; March 20, 1779; October 20, 1779; March 11, 1780; October 18, 1780; March 20, 1781; October 26, 1781; March 19, 1782; October 11, 1782; October 18, 1783.

15. The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (Washington: Gales & Seaton, 1834), Vol. I, pp. 949-950.

16. George Washington, Writings of George Washington, Jared Sparks, editor ((Boston: Russell, Odiorne and Metcalf, 1838), Vol. XII, p. 119, Proclamation for a National Thanksgiving on October 3, 1789.

17. The American Cyclopaedia, A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge, George Ripley and Charles A. Dana, editors (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1883), Vol. XV, p. 684, s.v., “Thanksgiving Day.”

18. See, for example, H. S. J. Sickel, Thanksgiving: Its Source, Philosophy and History With All National Proclamations (Philadelphia: International Printing Co, 1940), pp. 154-155, “Thanksgiving Day- 1795” by George Washington, pp. 156-157, “Thanksgiving Day – 1798” by John Adams, pp. 158-159, “Thanksgiving Day – 1799” by John Adams, p. 160, “Thanksgiving Day – 1814” by James Madison, p. 161, “Thanksgiving Day – 1815” by James Madison, etc.

19. Deloss Love, in his work The Fast and Thanksgiving Days of New England, lists some 1,735 proclamations issued between 1620 and 1820, in a non-exclusive list. Of those, 284 were issued by churches and 1,451 by civil authorities. Of the civil proclamations, 1,028 were issued prior to July 4, 1776, and 413 from July 4, 1776 to 1820. Of the church issued proclamations, 278 were issued before July 4, 1776, and six afterwards. These, however, are only a portion of what were issued; for example, the author personally owns hundreds of additional proclamations not listed in Love’s work. While the exact number of government-issued prayer proclamations is unknown, it is certain that they certainly number in the thousands.

20. Appleton’s Cyclopedia of American Biography, James Grant Wilson & John Fiske, editors (New York: D. Appleton & Co, 1888), Vol. III, p. 35.

21. Abraham Lincoln, The Works of Abraham Lincoln, John H. Clifford & Marion M. Miller, editors (New York: University Society Inc, 1908), Vol. VI, pp. 160-161, Proclamation for Thanksgiving, October 3, 1863. See also, The American Presidency Project, “Abraham Lincoln: Proclamation – Thanksgiving Day, 1863” (at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index/php?pid=69900&st=&stl=).

22. Abraham Lincoln, The Lincoln Memorial: Album-Immortelles. Osborn H. Oldroyd, editor (New York: G.W. Carleton & Co, 1882) p. 366, Reply to an Illinois Clergyman.

23. The National Archives, “Congress Establishes Thanksgiving” (at: http://www.archives.gov/legislative/features/thanksgiving/); see also Pilgrim Hall Museum, “Presidential Thanksgiving Proclamations 1940-1949: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman” (at: http://www.pilgrimhall.org/ThanxProc1940.htm), Proclamation 2571: Days of Prayer: Thanksgiving Day and New Year’s Day, November 11, 1942, referring to a “joint resolution of Congress approved December 26, 1941, which designates the fourth Thursday in November of each year as Thanksgiving Day.”

24. Journals of the Continental Congress (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1907), Vol. IX, p. 855, November 1, 1777.

25. The Papers of Thomas Jefferson, Julian P. Boyd, editor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951), Vol. 3, p. 178, Proclamation Appointing a Day of Thanksgiving and Prayer, November 11, 1779.

26. John Hancock, Proclamation for a Day of Public Thanksgiving (Boston, 1790), from an original broadside in possession of the author.


From: http://www.wallbuilders.com/LIBissuesArticles.asp?id=17984

10 comments:

Nitewrit said...

Jeff,

It is a shame this history of the holiday doesn't get the national coverage as it once did. But then who has time for such reflection when parades and football games are being celebrated, nd even more importantly, mqlls and stores are opening ever earlier, some even today, so we can go splurg on that most important reason for Christmas, buying, buying, buying.

Well, I'm thankful today for those of us, like yourself, who still see the real importance of these holidays. Thank you, jeff.

Larry E. (Night Writing in the Morning Light)

thekingpin68 said...

From Facebook:

Russ Murray posted a link.
thekingpin68©: Augustine and Privation revisited
Source: thekingpin68.blogspo...
[Kingpin comic cover]
By Jeff Jenkins of
http://jeffjenkinsocala.blogspot.com/

Jeff Jenkins at 12:25am November 27
Thanks, Russ, or should I say, TheKINGPIN68, of http://thekingpin68.blogspot.com/
Enjoy.
Signed,
Your Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Jenkins.

Russ Murray at 12:26am November 27
Thanks,
J. Jonah Jackson.

Jeff Jenkins at 12:27am November 27
And congrats on finally defeating your arch-nemesis, S&T, of:
http://satireandtheology.blogspot.com/

Jeff Jenkins at 12:27am November 27
LOL

Russ Murray at 12:28am November 27
The wise guy is still trying to compete with me and still has more traffic!

Jeff Jenkins at 12:31am November 27
LMHO! The Kingpin will take him down!
Next issue:
The fight of the century:
http://thekingpin68.blogspot.com/
vs.
http://satireandtheology.blogspot.com/
Only one will survive!

Russ Murray at 12:44am November 27
Hmm, he uses my picture and has all the same degrees from the same places, and writes with less citations. That turkey could be tough. I still have more links.

Jeff Jenkins at 12:49am November 27
Of course, he is your clone, created to be your greatest rival. It is now officially Thanksgiving here in the U.S., so send that "turkey" over here, and we'll take care of him for ya!

Russ Murray at 12:53am November 27
We have American friends and family and so on Saturday we are having folks over for US thanksgiving chicken. I can play the turkey.

Jeff Jenkins at 1:14am November 27
LOL! Turkey or Ham is standard, but chicken? That's a poor man's low-budget Thanksgiving!
Someone on Facebook the other day was talking about turducken, which is turkey stuffed with a de-boned duck, stuffed with a de-boned chicken. From my research, it apparently takes a lot of work, but people say it tastes fantastic.
In Miami, many Cubans would have a pig roast (roasting the whole pig), though I think that occurs more often on Christmas. It would take all day to roast in a pit. I went to a Cuban birthday party the last time I went back to visit Miami, and they had a pig roast there, and it was absolutely delicious. Of course, they also had the very loud Cuban music with huge speakers, Cuban dancing, and plenty of people, all held in a small back yard---all of which is common practice.

Russ Murray at 1:15am November 27
Chicken costs the same here and tastes better.:)

Jeff Jenkins at 1:30am November 27
Realistically, it's not so much a cost issue as a tradition and habit and perception issue. Many Americans feel that its not really Thanksgiving without the turkey and all the trimmings, because they have grown accustomed to eating turkey for Thanksgiving. Chicken is something you eat the rest of the year, but turkey is mainly eaten on Thanksgiving and Christmas. Our family had chicken one year for Thanksgiving, as I recall, and it was a huge disappointment to me and some others. Chicken just doesn't seem special. However, since you are not American, you have an excuse.

Russ Murray at 1:33am November 27
Chicken tastes better. Thanks Colonel.

Russ Murray at 1:34am November 27
Ever notice there is no Kansas Fried Turkey franchises?

Jeff Jenkins at 1:42am November 27
I admit that turkey is more dry, but chicken is far more common.
Chicken may taste better, which is why I'll eat it 363 days of the year, and I'll eat turkey 2 days of the year, which makes the turkey special. Like I said, turkey is reserved mainly for Thanksgiving and Christmas, so that's why there's no 'Kansas Fried Turkey' franchises. So there. Ha.
Um, don't hold me to eating chicken for 363 days...

Russ Murray at 1:44am November 27
I am too chicken to eat turkey.

Jeff Jenkins at 1:53am November 27
Ha!
Man, all these comments wasted on Facebook, when they could have been on your blog site instead. We could have had a good long 'Turkey vs. Chicken' debate in your blog comments. Problem is, it's very late here, and I need to get ready for bed; and tomorrow I'll be gone most of the day, so I probably won't be on the computer much. Ah, well, such is life...

Russ Murray at 1:55am November 27
Copy and paste the thread on thk68!

Jeff said...

Nitewrit (Larry E.),

"Night Writing in the Morning Light"...that's funny, and it sounds like you do what I do sometimes...work on the computer for hours after midnight.

On Black Friday here, there were people at some malls and stores lined up since Wednesday! They completely missed Thanksgiving, just so they could be first in line to enter the stores on Friday! One girl missed her birthday completely, because her and her family were in line for the store during her birthday.

However, the true history of the holiday has been purposely changed in school textbooks and in the media. No longer do they mention anything about God. They have altered and revised the reason that the Pilgrims celebrated with the Indians, and have taken anything that has to do with God out of it. The ACLU and others can be thanked for that.

Jeff said...

Russ (thekingpin68),

I didn't expect you to post those here, but hey, it adds to the number of comments, so thanks for returning the favor after I posted them on your site! Tit for tat, as they say (or used to say).

Farrah said...

I didn't read all of this, but I am glad you posted it. We have a lovely book on Thanksgiving which tells the story in depth, and it is a remarkable one showing the hand of God. It is a story with which few are acquinted today.

Jeff said...

Farrah,

I didn't read all of this, but I am glad you posted it. We have a lovely book on Thanksgiving which tells the story in depth, and it is a remarkable one showing the hand of God. It is a story with which few are acquinted today.

Thanks. That is cool that you have such a book. More Americans should be made aware of the true history of Thanksgiving and of our nation, as revisionists and liberals (partially due to people such as Madalyn Murray O'Hair and organizations such as the ACLU) have altered what is published today in history books, especially removing any mention of or tributes to God.

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Jeff said...

Thanks, Jaya.

Riley88 said...

Thank you so much! this made my day!

Jeff said...

Riley88,

Thank you so much! this made my day!

You're very welcome. And thank you for leaving a comment!